The architecture of Algeria encompasses a diverse history influenced by a number of internal and external forces, including the Roman Empire, Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, French colonization, and movements for Algerian independence
Ancient Carthage gained control of coastal Algeria by the 4th century BC. The empire’s influence on Algerian architecture is visible in the adoption of hybridized styles that integrated Punic, Hellenistic, and Roman architecture into pre existing architectural traditions.
Royal Numidian Architecture
Under the ancient Berber kingdoms of Numidia and Mauretania, Algeria saw increased urban development. Royal Numidian Architecture is the term coined for the monuments constructed by the Numidian kings, which comprise tombs, tumuli and sanctuaries.
Urbanization is especially associated with the reigns of kings Masinissa (202 BC–148 BC) and Juba II (30 BC – 25 AD). Evidence of urban planning during the kingdom of Mauretania has been found in neighboring Morocco and Tunisia. Juba II and his wife, Cleopatra Selene,
were clients of Rome and promoters of late Hellenistic culture.: 43–44 They used Iol (modern Cherchell) as their royal capital, renaming it Caesarea and developing into a city with a regular grid plan and the kind of architecture associated with the Roman Augustan period. Some structures in Caesarea have been dated or tentatively dated to Juba’s time, including the theater, the amphitheater, and the harbor